You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-14, which are based on the Reading Passage below.
The History of Jenolan Caves
JenoIan Caves in New South Wales are generally regarded as Australia's most remarkable cave system, with pure underground rivers and limestone crystal formations.
For thousands of years Jenolan Caves were known to the local Aboriginal people as Binoomea or ‘Dark places’. Europeans did not come to the area until 1838; the first officially recorded discovery was by a local pastoralist called James Whalan. However, as local rumour would have it, the first European to find the caves was James McKeown, an ex-convict who is said to have been using the caves as a place to hide. After 1838, James Whalan and his brother Charles discovered several openings, including the Elder cave in 1848. In 1860, the largest of the current caves on show: the Lucas cave, was discovered by Nicholas Irwin and George Whiting. The caves did not come under the direct control of the government until 1866 and the Aboriginal word Jenolan (meaning ‘high mountain’) was not formally adopted by the government until 1884.
In spite of this government control, the caves had little protection at first. In the early years, visitors freely broke rock formations and took pieces away from the caves as souvenirs. Damage is still visible in some caves today. Thanks primarily to the efforts of John Lucas, the local member of Parliament, this practice became illegal in 1872. The Lucas Cave was named after him, as recognition of his role in preserving this fragile location.
In the 1880s, Jenolan Caves emerged as a popular place for tourists. More exploration had occurred; for instance the caver Jeremiah Wilson had explored right to the end of the Elder Cave. In 1879 he had come across the Imperial Cave upon descending a shaft and this was followed by his discovery of the Left Imperial cave in 1880. This latter cave was renamed the Chifley Cave many years later in 1952, after the Australian Prime Minister, J.B. Chifley. Development began at this time; pathways were put in, provision was made for the protection of crystal formations and a house was constructed as accommodation for visitors. Wilson continued exploring, finding the Jersey Cave in 1891 and the impressive Jubilee Cave in 1893. The original buildings at the caves was partially destroyed by fire in 1898 and the present-day hotel (known as Caves House) was constructed.
By the year 1900, Jenolan was thriving as a tourist destination. However, there was still more to discover. In 1903, James Carvosso Wiburd became the Superintendent of Caves, and embarked upon one of the Jenolan's most successful periods of exploration. Whereas Wilson had focussed his exploration in the northern limestone, Wiburd forged deeper into the caves south of the Grand Arch, The River and Pool of Cerberus Caves were first found by Wiburd in 1903, along with a further three caves in 1904. These discoveries elevated the status of Jenolan Caves worldwide, especially when the River (1904), Temple of Baal (1909) and Orient (1917) opened as show caves. Even after that time, the guiding staff continued to go into unchartered territory in the cave system and guides Ron Newbould and John Culley first found the Barralong Cave in 1963.
Lighting was an aspect of cave development that evolved over time. The first cave explorers carried candles, with spares and plenty of matches. However, a strong breeze could put out the flame; candle wax could spill on clothes and crystals, or a candle could be dropped into the water, leaving people stranded in the dark. Jeremiah Wilson fashioned candle holders that had a dish to catch the dripping wax and a spring-loaded device pushed the melting candle up through the burn hole, so that the flame continued to burn. The magnesium lamp came as an improvement on candles; this consisted of a clockwork mechanism which wound a burning wire into a wide reflector dish. In this way, cave features were individually illuminated. In 1887 came another innovation, electric searchlights, said to have the illuminating power of 120 candles.
Lieutenant Colonel E.C. Cracknell, Superintendent of Telegraphs, chose to light a chamber, at the top of the present-day stairs to the Chifley Cave using electric lighting. This cave was selected as it had the highest concentration of crystal features in any of the caves that had been discovered up to that point in time. The 18-metre climb meant 18 zinc and cast iron cell batteries had to be dragged up to the cave. Electricity allowed the caves to be seen to greater advantage and also prevented them from being discoloured by candle smoke.
Coloured lights were used to showcase some of the caves for the visit of the Governor of New South Wales in January 1893, beginning a tradition that was upheld for years thereafter. Some visitors remember these coloured lights appreciatively, but others prefer to view the caves in more natural lighting.
Today, Jenolan attracts over 230,000 annual visitors, who come to view the eleven show caves or even to try adventure caving. The question remains as to how many caves there are yet to be discovered.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
Complete the notes below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 8-11 on your answer sheet.
Lighting the Jenolan Caves
Label the diagram below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 12-14 on your answer sheet.
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